Exodus 28

  1. For the order in which the priest’s garments were put on, see Lev. 8:7-9. Each has some significance: the coat of pure linen (verse 39) indicating the high priest as a righteous man; the blue robe (verses 31-35) as a heavenly man; the ephod with the names of the tribes (verses 3-29) as a representative man; the mitre with its golden plate (verses 36-38) as a holy man. Reflect how in all these ways the high priest of Israel in his priestly garments was a type of Christ.
  2. What can we learn from this chapter concerning the way in which to draw near to God on behalf of others? How must we be clad, and what ought we to be concerned to do?


  1. The ephod was a shoulder garment, covering breast and back.
  2. The breastpiece was probably a bag or pouch fastened to the front of the ephod, and called ‘the breastpiece of judgment’ because it contained the Urim and Thummim, which were used to ascertain the divine will. Cf. Num. 27:21; Ezr. 2:63. Their exact from and use is not now known.
  3. Aaron bore the names of the tribes on his shoulders (the place of strength) and on his heart (the place of affection).

Exodus 26 & 27

  1. Chapter 26. What four layers of curtains covered the tabernacle? What appearance would It have from without, and what from within?
    Cf. the contrast between Christ seen from without (Is. 53:2), and seen from within (Phil. 3:8)

Note. It will prove helpful to draw a ground plan of the tabernacle so far as it has been described in these two chapters, with the court, the holy place, and the most holy place, and the altar, table of showbread, candlestick and ark in their proper positions.

Exodus 25

  1. What was the twofold purpose of the tabernacle?
    See verses 8, 22 in particular.
  2. Notice the three articles of furniture described in this chapter, but observe specially the ark and what is said of it in verses 20, 22. What is the significance of the fact that only above the mercy seat could God and man meet and commune together? Cf. 1 John 2:1, 2.

Note. Verses 17-22. The ‘atonement cover’ (or mercy seat or propitiatory covering) was a slab of pure gold, with cherubim at either end. This acted as a lid on the ark, covering the tables of testimony inside. On it the high priest sprinkled blood to make atonement. Cf. Lev. 16:15, 16.

Exodus 23:20-24:18

  1. 23:20-33. Consider the promises God makes to the people and the demands he makes of them.
    Can you think of parallel spiritual promise made to Christians and demands made of them in the Christian life?
  2. 24:1-18. Why was this a day of significance and importance in the history of Israel?
    To what did the people commit themselves?
    Why is this covenant called (in 2 Cor. 3:7, 9) a ‘dispensation of condemnation’ and of ‘death’?
    What was God’s answer to the situation thus created?
    Cf. Lev. 17:11; Heb. 9:22.


Exodus 21:33-23:19

The laws in 21:33-22:15 relate mainly to questions of property, and the remainder of the portion contains miscellaneous precepts.

  1. What instances of careless neglect, leading to injury or loss for others, are given in 21:33-22:15?
    And what does God demand of the offender in such cases?
    Can you think of modern parallels to the careless described here?
  2. Out from 22:16-23:19 illustrations of the truth of the claims God makes here concerning himself.
    For these claims see 22:27; 23:7.
    Against what sin does he say that his wrath will wax hot?

Note. Some of these laws are similar to those found in the famous code of. Hammurabi, but the provisions are much more merciful. (Cf. NBD, pp.442-3.) Notice in 22:31 the reference to being ‘consecrated’ to God. Cf. Lev. 11:44, 45

Exodus 21:1-32

The laws in this portion concern relations between people, particularly those between slaves and masters. While slavery is tolerated, its severity is mitigated in various ways.

  1. What are the principles underlying the laws about persons?
    In particular, what kind of relationship between slave and master is contemplated in verses 2-6?
    Cf. also Deut. 15:12-18; Jer. 34:12-17.
  2. For what a kind of transgression was the death penalty inflicted?
    See also 22:18-20; 31:15.
    Why is this?
    Cf. Mark 9:43-48.

Exodus 19 & 20

  1. What revelation is given in these chapters concerning:
    1. The Character of God, and
    2. His purpose for his people.
  2. What are the standards of worship and behaviour that God expects of his people? Try to summarise them briefly in your own words.